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在近òq´çš„旋挖æœÞZ‹É用过½E‹ä¸­åQŒæ–½å·¥è¿‡½E‹ä¸­é‡‡å–了行之有效的措施åQŒç»‹¹Žæ•ˆç›Šå’Œ½C¾ä¼šæ•ˆç›Šè¾ƒäؓ可观åQŒä½†ä¹Ÿå‡ºçŽîCº†ä¸ªåˆ«é—®é¢˜ã€‚比如:卡钻是旋挖钻机施工中易出现的、危完™¾ƒå¤§çš„事故之一。所谓卡钻,是指旋挖é’ÀLœºåœ¨é’»˜q›æˆ–提升˜q‡ç¨‹ä¸­ï¼Œç”׃ºŽéžé’»æœºæœ¬íw«çš„原因åQŒå³é’ÀLœºçš„各¾pȝ»Ÿå·¥ä½œæ­£å¸¸æ—Óž¼Œå‡ºçŽ°æ­£åè½¬åŠ¨ä½œå‡æ— æ³•˜q›è¡Œã€ä¸”ä¸Õd·æ‰¬æ— æ³•å°†é’ÀL†æè“våQŒç„¶åŽåå¤é‡å¤ä»¥ä¸ŠåŠ¨ä½œï¼Œä¹Ÿæ— æ³•æ¢å¤æ­£å¸¸å·¥ä½œçš„情况。本文针å¯ÒŽ—‹æŒ–钻机在施工˜q‡ç¨‹ä¸­æ˜“发生的、危完™¾ƒå¤§çš„事故卡钻的原因作一些分析,òq¶æå‡ºç›¸åº”对½{–,与同行们共同探讨ã€?br /> 一åQšå¡é’ȝš„原因<br /> æ ÒŽ®˜q‘几òq´ä¸€äº›å¡é’ÖMº‹æ•…的调查分析åQŒåˆæ­¥è®¤ä¸ºå¡é’ȝš„主要原因有以下几斚w¢åQ?br /> 1.在钻˜q›å’Œæå‡˜q‡ç¨‹ä¸­ï¼Œå­”壁发生大面¿U¯å¡Œæ–¹è€Œé€ æˆåŸ‹é’»åQŒä‹Éé’Õd¤´æ—¢æ— æ³•è¿›è¡Œæ­£åè{åQŒä¹Ÿæ— æ³•æè“v。这¿Uæƒ…况在密实度不太大的砂卵层或流砂层较易发生ã€?br /> 2.ç”׃ºŽæ“ä½œæ‰‹åœ¨é’»è¿›æ—¶æ“ä½œæœ‰è¯¯ï¼Œä¸€‹Æ¡è¿›ž®ºå¤ªæ·±ï¼Œé€ æˆå­”壁¾~©å¾„åQŒä‹Éé’Õd¤´½{’壁与孔壁间的间隙消å¤Þp€Œé€ æˆå¡é’»ã€‚æ­¤¿Uæƒ…况在¾_˜æƒ”层或砂层变äؓ¾_˜æƒ”层时易äؓ发生ã€?br /> 3.é’Õd¤´è¾šw‹É、侧齿磨损严重,成孔直径无法保证ž®ºå¯¸è¦æ±‚åQŒä‹Éé’ȝ­’外壁与孔壁间无间隙,同时钻进˜q‡æ·±è€Œé€ æˆã€?br /> 4.ç”׃ºŽå¶å‘因素造成åQšå¦‚钻进或提升过½E‹ä¸­é’¢ä¸¾lÏx–­è£‚,‹zÕdŠ¨æŽ¥å¤´(万向èŠ?解体åQŒæˆ–机器本èín出现了一些其它故éš?如发动机无法工作、钢丝ç‘Ñ跛_‡ºæ»‘轮槽等)使工作突然停止,而处理又不及æ—Óž¼Œé’Õd¤´åœ¨å­”底停留时间过长,å¯ÆD‡´é’Õd¤´½{’壁四周沉渣太多或孔壁羃径ã€?br /> 二:预防卡钻的措æ–?br /> 预防主要从以下几斚w¢å…¥æ‰‹åQ?br /> 1.开é’Õd‰è¦å……分研½I¶åœ°è´¨æŠ¥å‘Šï¼ŒæŽŒæ¡åœ°å±‚情况åQŒåŒæ—¶åœ¨æ–½å·¥˜q‡ç¨‹ä¸­å¯†åˆ‡æ³¨æ„åœ°å±‚变化。对å®ÒŽ˜“造成塌孔的地层,如砂卵层、流砂层要提前制定对½{–,如调整护壁液性能、埋è®ùN•¿æŠ¤ç­’½{‰ï¼Œé˜²æ­¢å¤§é¢¿U¯å¡Œå­”现象发生ã€?br /> 2.操作手在深层钻进时要控制˜q›å°ºåQŒä¸è¦ä¸€‹Æ¡è¿›ž®ºå¤ªå¤šï¼Œå¦‚在15m以深钻进æ—Óž¼Œä¸€‹Æ¡é’»˜q›æ·±åº¦ä¸€èˆ¬ä¸è¦è¶…˜q?0cm。如在粘泥层钻进åQŒè¦å……分考虑¾~©å¾„å› ç´ ;如遇砂卵石等地层向粘泥层转换åQŒéœ€æ³¨æ„åœ°å±‚变化规律åQŒä¸è¦ç›²ç›®åŠ åŽ‹ï¼ŒæŽ§åˆ¶ä¸€‹Æ¡è¿›ž®ºé‡ã€?br /> 3.制作é’Õd¤´æ—¶åº”注意é’ȝ­’ž®ºå¯¸åQŒé’»½{’直径一般应ž®äºŽæˆå­”直径6cm以上;在ä‹É用过½E‹ä¸­åQŒå¯¹é’Õd¤´è¦åŠæ—¶ä¿®å¤ï¼Œé’Õd¤´ä¾§é‹É、边齿磨损后要及时更换或补焊åQŒä¿è¯æˆå­”å°ºå¯?同时应保证钻头挂勾有效,避免意外脱勾ã€?br /> 4.要注意钻机本íw«çš„及时保养和维修,避免因钻机出现故障而造成长时间停钅R€?br /> 5.调整好护壁液的密度和¾_˜åº¦åQŒä‹É孔底能在一定时间内无沉渣,以保证设备偶然出现故障后有充分的旉™—´æŽ’除ã€?br /> 三:卡钻处理措施<br /> 1.分析造成卡钻的原因,ž®½å¿«‹¹‹é‡å¡é’»æ·±åº¦åQŒåˆ†æžåœ°å±‚等因素åQŒä»¥ä¾‰K‡‡å–相应对½{–ã€?br /> 2.æ ÒŽ®åˆ†æžå‡ºçš„原因åQŒé‡‡å–相应对½{–ã€?br /> ①由于塌孔或讑֤‡è‡ªèín原因造成的卡钻,沉渣厚度大,要首先清孔,然后再用é’ÀLœºæˆ–辅助设备处理ã€?br /> ②由于非塌方因素造成的卡钻,沉渣不多æ—Óž¼Œåº”首先采取自救措施,如适当调高液压¾pȝ»ŸåŽ‹åŠ›åQŒä‹É动力头扭矩增大,再正反è{转动é’ÀL†åQŒå°½é‡ä‹Éé’ÀL†‹zÕdŠ¨åQŒåªè¦èƒ½‹zÕdŠ¨é’Õd¤´åQŒå³å¯æ…¢æ…¢è¾¹è½¬è¾¹æï¼Œä»Žè€Œè§£å†³é—®é¢?但此æ–ÒŽ³•åº”充分考虑钢丝¾l³çš„¼‚¨æŸ½E‹åº¦½{‰å› ç´?。另外也可以适度起升桅杆åQŒä»¥å¢žå¤§å¯šw’»æ†çš„起吊能力(此方法必™åÀLœ‰æœºæ¢°ä¸“业人员在场充分考虑各方面因素后实施)。以上方法只能在卡钻初期使用ã€?br /> ③如果自救无效时åQŒè¦æ”¹ç”¨è¾…助讑֤‡å¤„理。此时要先测量沉渣厚度,如沉渣很ž®‘,可迅速采取措施;如果沉渣˜q‡åŽšåQŒè¦å…ˆè¿›è¡Œæ¸…孔,然后再进行处理。其æ–ÒŽ³•ä¸»è¦åŒ…括直接起吊法、钻头周围疏通法、护壁开挖法ã€?br /> 直接起吊法:ž®±æ˜¯ç”¨åŠè½¦æˆ–液压™å¶å‡æœºç›´æŽ¥å‘上施力。根据在北京某工地实际经验,卡钻åœ?2h之内åQŒç”¨4å?5t吊èžRåQŒå†åŠ ä¸Šé’ÀLœºä¸Õd·æ‰¬æœ¬íw«æ‹‰åŠ›æ˜¯å¯ä»¥è§£å†³é—®é¢˜çš„ã€?br /> é’Õd¤´å‘¨å›´ç–é€šæ³•åQšç”¨ååó@环或气ä‹D反åó@环原ç?用高压气泵ä‹É½Ž¡å†…产生气水混合物而äñ”生压差åŞ成反循环)、水下切割等æ–ÒŽ³•åQŒæ¸…理钻½{’四周沉渣,减小½{’壁与孔壁之摩擦力,然后再用é’ÀLœºåŠè¾…助设备顶升。此æ–ÒŽ³•è¾ƒéš¾æ“ä½œåQŒä½†åœ¨æ­¦æ±‰æŸå·¥åœ°æ›¾æˆåŠŸä‹É用ã€?br /> 护壁开挖法åQšç”¨æŠ¤ç­’、水泥或其它物品护壁åQŒæŽ’掉孔内护壁液åQŒç”¨äººå·¥ç›´æŽ¥å¼€æŒ–,清理é’ȝ­’周围沉渣。此æ–ÒŽ³•ä»…限于在卡钻不太æ·Þqš„地层中ä‹É用ã€?br /> 3.如果é’ÀL†æ— æ³•æå‡º˜q˜æœ‰ä¸€¿Uå¯èƒ½ï¼Œé‚£å°±æ˜¯åœ¨æ—‹æŒ–机钻杆正常打孔中出现了偏斜,å¯ÆD‡´é’ÀL†ä¸æ­£åQŒè¿™¿Uæƒ…况下一般都是下面存在异ç‰?如石头、铁块、钢板等)而导致偏孔,˜q™ç§æƒ…况下必™åÕdè½¬ï¼Œ¾~“æ…¢ž®†é’»æ†æå‡ºï¼Œ˜q›è¡Œåˆ†æžè¾¨è®¤ã€?br /> 4.¾lè¿‡å¤šè“v˜q™ç§çŽ°è±¡çš„发生,基本都是ž®åž‹æ—‹æŒ–é’ÀLœºæ“ä½œæ‰‹æ²¡æœ‰ä¸¥æ ¼æŒ‰ç…§åŽ‚家的使用说明˜q›è¡Œæ“ä½œåQŒç›²ç›®è®¤ä¸ø™‡ªå·±æ˜¯å¯¹çš„åQŒæˆ‘们在操作中要杜绝˜q™ç§æ€æƒ³åQŒæŒ‰ç…§åŽ‚家的相关条例˜q›è¡Œæ“ä½œã€?br /> ¾lég¸Šæ‰€˜qŽÍ¼Œå¡é’»æ˜¯æ—‹æŒ–钻机施工中危害较大的事故之一åQŒåº”从预防入手,ž®½é‡é¿å…å‡ºçŽ°ã€‚è¿™ž®Þp¦æ±‚管理äh员和机组人员切实认识到卡é’ȝš„危害åQŒé’ˆå¯¹å„¿Uåœ°å±‚,事先制定好预 防措施,òq¶åœ¨æ–½å·¥ä¸­åšå†Ïx‰§è¡Œï¼›åŒæ—¶å¯¹å¡é’Õd¤„理事故做适当的äh力、物力等斚w¢çš„准备,æ ÒŽ®å„种情况提前拟定多种抢救æ–ÒŽ¡ˆåQŒåšåˆ°æœªé›¨ç»¸¾~ªã€‚如¼‹®å®žå‘生卡钻事故åQŒçŽ°åœºç®¡ 理äh员与机组人员要稳定情¾lªã€åˆ†æžåŽŸå› ã€æ ¹æ®é¢„定的æ–ÒŽ¡ˆç«‹å³˜q›è¡ŒæŠ¢æ•‘。首先采取自救措施,如自救无效,要迅速利用社会力量,ž®½å¿«å¤„理。根据以往¾léªŒåQŒå¦‚果采取措æ–?得当且行动迅速,可以避免造成更大的损失ã€?br /></p> <p><div>上一æ?<a href="136.html">é’ÀL†ä¿®å¤å…¬å¸åˆ†äínåQšæ€Žæ ·å»‰™•¿é’ÀL†çš„ä‹É用寿命?</a></div> <div>下一æ?<a href="134.html">原有的钻杆修复工è‰ÞZ¸»è¦æ”¹˜q›çš„好处有哪些呢åQ?/a></div> </p> <div class="tag"><span style="color:#a83838;">相关标签åQ?/span></div> </div> </div> <div class="clearit"></div> <div class="comment"> <h2>相关新闻</h2> <h6 class="clear"></h6> <ul> <li><a target="_blank" href="/news/145.html" title="‹È®é˜³é’ÀL†ä¿®å¤å…¬å¸åˆ†äínåQšæ—‹æŒ–钻机钻杆出çŽîC¸‹æ»‘的原因">‹È®é˜³é’ÀL†ä¿®å¤å…¬å¸åˆ†äínåQšæ—‹æŒ–钻机钻杆出çŽîC¸‹æ»‘的原因</a></li> <li><a target="_blank" href="/news/144.html" title="é’Õd…·éš¾æ‹†è£…是怎么回事åQ?>é’Õd…·éš¾æ‹†è£…是怎么回事åQ?/a></li> <li><a target="_blank" href="/news/143.html" 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